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Plato, Socrates and Shakespeare endorse
a ~ Tripartite Soul view ~ of Human Nature

The very widely held,
and truly notably suggested,
"Tripartite Soul" view of Human Nature

Several major world faiths, Shakespeare, and Socrates and his friend Plato, can be seen as being amongst those authorities which ALL seem to agree in support of a "Tripartite Soul" view of Human Nature!!!

Three examples of this will now be considered, one from William Shakespeare, then a contribution from Socrates and Plato, followed by some ~ Wisdom of the East:

There's neither honesty, manhood, nor good fellowship in thee.
William Shakespeare: Henry IV (Pt 1), Act I, Scene II

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The quotation from Shakespeare presented above is perhaps complemented by this brief selection of Socratic Dialogue from Plato's most famous work - The Republic:

… can we possibly refuse to admit that there exist in each of us the same generic parts and characteristics as are found in the state? For I presume the state has not received them from any other source. It would be ridiculous to imagine that the presence of the spirited element in cities is not to be traced to individuals, … or the love of knowledge, … or the love of riches …
Socrates ~ from Book 4 of Plato's - The Republic


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In the Bhagavad Gita, (a principal Holy Book of Hinduism), we read:

Arjuna spoke.
   But by what is a man impelled, O Varshneya! when he commits sin even against his will, as if compelled by force?

The Holy One spoke.
   It is lust: it is wrath, born from the "passion" mode: know that this, all-devouring, all-defiling, is here our foe.
Bhagavad Gita 3: 36-37

and again ~

… the pleasures that come from the world bear in them sorrows to come. They come and they go, they are transient: not in them do the wise find joy.
But he who on this earth, before his departure, can endure the storms of desire and wrath, this man is a Yogi, this man has joy.
He has inner joy, he has inner gladness, and he has found inner Light. This Yogi attains the Nirvana of Brahman: he is one with God and goes unto God.
Holy men reach the Nirvana of Brahman: their sins are no more, their doubts are gone, their soul is in harmony, their joy is in the good of all.
Because the peace of God is with them whose mind and soul are in harmony, who are free from desire and wrath, who know their own soul.
Bhagavad Gita 5: 22-26

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Several other World Religions can be shown to similarly identify a relativity between Spirituality, "Desire," and "Wrath".

Links now follow to web pages, and to sections on some of our "Spiritual Insights" web pages, which consider this perhaps perplexing Relativity.

The Parable of the Sower - Jesus


The Sermon on the Mount - Jesus


Our Islamic Spirituality page


Our Hindu Spirituality page


Our Buddhist Spirituality page


Our Sikh Spirituality page


More examples of this three-way attribution of identifiable aspects, (honesty, manhood and good fellowship), to Human Nature are to be found by following this link to our partner site Tripartite Soul Theory.com:


Tripartite Soul Theory overview



This can be taken much further in that Human Behavior, and even large-scale and enduring themes in Human history, can be seen as arising from the motivations, and predispositions, inherent in Human Nature:

Whatever concept one may hold, from a metaphysical point of view, concerning the freedom of the will, certainly its appearances, which are human actions, like every other natural event, are determined by universal laws. However obscure their causes, history, which is concerned with narrating these appearances, permits us to hope that if we attend to the play of freedom of the human will in the large, we may be able to discern a regular movement in it, and that what seems complex and chaotic in the single individual may be seen from the standpoint of the human race as a whole to be a steady and progressive though slow evolution of its original endowment.
Immanuel Kant
Idea for a Universal History from a Cosmopolitan Point of View (1784)


In southern England in the later part of the ninth century A.D. King Alfred the Great authorised, and may have personally contributed to, a translation of Boethius' work "The Consolations of Philosophy."
Whilst this translation is not today held to be fully accurate it did, as published under the royal authority of Alfred as King of Wessex, include this passage:

… you know that desire for and possession of earthly power never pleased me overmuch, and that I did not unduly desire this earthly rule, but that nevertheless I wished for tools and resources for the task that I was commanded to accomplish, which was that I should virtuously and worthily guide and direct the authority which was entrusted to me. You know of course that no-one can make known any skill, nor direct and guide any enterprise, without tools and resources; a man cannot work on any enterprise without resources. In the case of the king, the resources and tools with which to rule are that he have his land fully manned: he must have praying men, fighting men and working men. You know also that without these tools no king may make his ability known.
Alfred the Great: Asser's Life of King Alfred and Other Contemporary Sources

The adoption of a pattern of society featuring Dynastic Rulers, Church Hierachies, Ennobled Lords, and Laborers-Artisans-Traders became widespread in Europe before and after King Alfred's time. Such patterning of society survived in much of Europe for more than a thousand years thereafter!

Why should we not attribute the initial adoption of the Dynastic patterns of society to the vital necessity recognised by the state, (of King Alfred's times), for Religious, Defensive and Productive activities to take place - whilst persons were available, with the requisite attributes, to be Clerics, Noblemen and Laborers-Artisans-Traders.

It can be asserted that the survival of such patterning of society for more than a thousand years in diverse, (and often relatively accomplished parts of Europe), did much to provide Definitive Contexts, (associable with Human Nature?), for peoples' day-to-day lives across those those centuries.
[As the eighteenth-century continued into the twentieth the Europe of Dynastic Rulers, Church Hierachies and Ennobled Lords became slowly, but nonetheless increasingly, submerged in patterns of society newly re-shaped by such emergent "isms" as Liberalism, Constitutionalism, Nationalism and Socialism. Urbanisation and population growth became very evident and there were increasingly wider extensions of voting rights.
Honesty, manhood and good fellowship have doubtless continued to be expressed in individual peoples' lives, and the functioning of societies, in the emergent ordering of things since populisms and social changes have re-shaped patterns of society.]

More on such evidences of influences of the Tripartite Soul on the courses History of is to be found by following this link to our partner site Tripartite Soul Theory.com:


Historical evidences of the Tripartite Soul