|Fuller guide to our History Pages
|The European Revolutions of 1848
"1848 remains a seed-plot of history. It crystallized ideas and projected the pattern of things to come; it determined the course of the following century."
- The European Revolutions of 1848 begin
- A broad outline of the background to the onset of the turmoils and a consideration of some of the early events.
- The French Revolution of 1848
- A particular focus on France - as an Austrian foreign minister said "When France sneezes Europe catches a cold".
- The Revolution of 1848 in Germany and central Europe
- the Germanies - Germany - had a movement for a single parliament in 1848 and many central European would-be "nations" attempted
to assert a distinct existence separate from the dynastic sovereignties they had been living under.
- The "Italian" Revolution of 1848
- A "liberal" Papacy after 1846 helps allow the embers of an "Italian" national aspiration to rekindle across the Italian Peninsula.
- The European Revolutions - reactionary aftermath 1848-1849
- Some instances of social and political extremism allow previously pro-reform liberal elements to join conservative elements in supporting
the return of traditional authority. Such nationalities living within the Habsburg Empire as the Czechs, Croats, Slovaks, Serbs and Roumanians,
find it more credible to look to the Emperor,
rather than to the democratised assemblies recently established in Vienna and in Budapest as a result of populist agitation, for the future protection
of their nationality.
The Austrian Emperor and many Kings and Dukes regain political powers. Louis Napoleon, (who later became the Emperor Napoleon III), elected as President
in France offering social stability at home but ultimately follows policies productive of dramatic change in the wider European
structure of states and their sovereignty.
Italian Unification - Cavour, Garibaldi and the Unification of Risorgimento Italy
Otto von Bismarck & The wars of German unification
Italian Unification Map - Italy as formed during the Risorgimento
Map of German unification
The Ems Telegram
The Zimmermann Telegram
|Council of Europe Vienna Declaration after the fall of Soviet Russia of circa 1989
|Council of Europe Framework Convention for the protection of National Minorities, 1995
Understanding the Past, Present and Future : Human Nature and History
Why does History matter? Why do we study History?
The Importance of History, Why do we study History, Why is History important? quotations
|R G Collingwood
philosophy of history
Hegel ~ Philosophy of History
Decline of the West
A Study of History
|The Whig Interpretation
|Philosophy of History index
|The Diplomacy during World War One