biography, Interpretation of Dreams
[Sigmund Freud, biography]
Charcot, biography

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Sigmund Freud
An outline biography

  Sigismund Schlomo Freud was born on May 6th 1856 in Freiberg (now Príbor, Czech Republic) His mother Amalia, was actually the third wife of Jacob Freud and some twenty years younger than her husband. Sigismund was the first child of their marriage, seven more children were to follow. Jacob's earlier marriages had produced two sons who were more a less of an age with Amalia. The household was Jewish and Jacob earnt a fairly modest living as a merchant in wool. In 1859 the family moved initially to Leipzig and then, a few months thereafter, settled permanently in Vienna.

  Although Sigismund's early aspiration had been for a career in law, he later decided to pursue a course in Medicine and entered Vienna University in 1873. It seems that he became deeply involved, from 1876, in researches into the central nervous system to the extent that he neglected to closely pursue the range of courses that would have allowed him to promptly qualify as a doctor. Another source of delay being a compulsory one years military service. As a result it was 1881 before he was awarded a degree in medicine under the name Sigmund Freud (following an adaption in his personal names of 1877).

  Immediately subsequent to this graduation several years were spent in Vienna working as a practical psychologist and lecturer in psychology. In 1886 he established a private practice in Vienna specializing in nervous disorders. He also got married to Martha Bernays in that year.

  Sigmund Freud worked in association with another Viennese hypnotherapist named Josef Breuer in the preparation and publication a learned paper (1893) that was later developed into their publication Studies on Hysteria (Cathartic Method) (1895), however his interest gradually moved away from the investigation of neurological- physiological causes of mental disorders towards the investigation of more purely psychological causes of such disorders and in 1896 coined the term Psychoanalysis to refer to the investigation of the psychological causes of mental disorders.

  In 1899, The Interpretation of Dreams, the book that Sigmund Freud regarded as his most important work was published. Although the orthodox medical profession in Vienna tended to look upon his work with deep suspicion he was appointed as a professor in Vienna in 1902 very largely as the result of the gratitude of an highly influential patient.

  By 1908 a group of psychologists interested in Freud's methods formed themselves into the Viennese Association of Psychoanalysis.

  Psychoanalysis increasingly gained an international acceptance as a method of psychological investigation. Delegates from five countries attended a Freudian psychology congress in Salzburg in 1908. In 1909 Freud was invited, along with Alfred Adler and Carl Gustav Jung to lecture at Clark University in the United States. In 1910 an International Psychoanalytical Association was founded.

  Adler and Jung were associated with Freud in the Psychoanalytic movement for a time but in Adler's case there was a parting of the ways in 1911 and in Jung's case in 1913.

  In 1923 Freud was diagnosed as having cancer of the jaw. Nevertheless, during the next sixteen years, he remained productive in Psychoanalysis but also in a broadening of his interests into associated philosophical and cultural matters. Freud's subsequently received many international awards and recognitions of his work.

  Other international developments were however less welcome - Austria was threatened with being absorbed into Hitler's Greater German Reich and effectively taken over by Hitler in mid-March 1938. Although Freud seems to have been personally irreligious he and his family were very open to being classed, by the Nazis, as Jews and as such saw the practical necessity of evading Hitler's encroachments on their liberties by emigrating from Austria. In the event the family relocated to London. Freud was at this time in his early eighties and only survived until September 1939.

Introductory quotations
Sigmund Freud's
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Abraham Maslow
Ivan Pavlov
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Sigmund Freud
An outline biography