analytical psychology
[Carl Gustav Jung, collective unconcious]
Sigmund Freud, Psychological Types, extrovert, introvert

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Carl Gustav Jung
The collective unconcious

 Carl Gustav Jung was born on July 26th 1875 in Kesswil, Switzerland. The son of a pious Protestant clergyman and his extroverted well-born wife. An only child for the first nine years of his life, he developed, during a lonely childhood, a pronounced inclination for dreaming and meditation which he later sought to actually develop.

  Jung graduated in medicine from the universities of Basel (M.D. 1900) and Zürich (PhD. 1902) and worked between 1900 and 1909 in a Zürich Mental Hospital. Early in 1903 he married Emma Rauschenbach who was herself trained in psychoanalysis.

  It may be possible that Aristotle, way back in the days of classical Greece, investigated the possiblity that there is a great significance in the way in which words suggested to one person will elicit another word in response. Alike with many other areas of investigation that may have had some currency in ancient Greece word association techniques seem to have completely fallen into abeyance until revived by Jung shortly after his graduation.

  He came to accept that a patient's response words, uttered in reaction to his own stimulus words, would inevitably tend to reveal areas of particular concern or anxiety that were being experienced by the patient. Jung gave the name "complexes" to such areas of particular concern or anxiety. As well as using these word association techniques he also followed an approach to psychonalysis deriving largely from the works of Sigmund Freud.

  Early in 1906 he sent a book he had written about word association to Freud. From this time an exchange of letters began with a face to face meeting taking place in March of 1907 after Jung journeyed to Vienna at Freud's invitation.

  Jung and Freud remained on close terms as professional psychologists for several years thereafter. In 1909 Jung established himself in private practice as a psychoanalyst at Küsnacht.

  Freud seemed to look to Jung as being much in sympathy with his own approach to psychology. Freud's influence contributed to Jung's being selected as the Permanent President of the International Psychoanalytical Association in 1910. It happened however that Jung eventually came to believe that Freud's view of the human "unconcious mind" placed too great an emphasis on sexuality in relation to human behavior and to psychological complexes. Although Freud at one time had seemed to hope that Jung would carry "Freudianism" into the future there was a parting of the ways. In 1912 Jung's book New Ways of Psychology overtly set out the difference in his approach to that of Freud. An actual professional and personal estrangement became definitely established in 1913.

  New Ways in Psychology was re-published, with some amendments in 1916, as On the Psychology of the Unconcious.

  Jung relinquished the Presidency of the International Psychoanalytical Association and became deeply involved, as a co-founder, in a movement called analytical psychology.

  In 1921 he published Psychological Types a major work dealing with the relationship between the conscious and unconscious and proposing the recognition of the personality types extrovert and introvert.

  Jung's theorisings were largely based on a period of intense self-analysis, later made a distinction between the personal unconscious and the collective unconscious. The individual unconscious could be seen as the set of repressed feelings and thoughts experienced and developed during an individual person's lifetime. The collective unconscious could be seen as the set of inherited and typical modes of expression, feeling, thought, and memory that were seemingly innate to all human beings.

  Jung saw the collective unconscious as being made up of so-called "archetypes". These archetypes being potentialities, or proclivities, that can find a channel of expression in the finding of a mate, religion, art, myth, and even in the eventual facing of death.

  Jung's approach to psychotherapy is aimed at achieving a reconciliation between the diverse states of personality, which he saw not only as being stressed by the tendencies toward introvertedness or extrovertedness, but also by other contrary tendencies of sensing or intuiting, and of feeling or thinking. Through achieving a true insight into how an individual patient's unconscious integrates with the collective unconscious that patient can be helped towards achieving a state of individuation, or wholeness of self.

  Between 1932-1940 Jung held a professorship in psychology in Zürich and in 1944-5 he held a professorship in medical psychology at Basel.

  Jung died on June 6, 1961, in Küsnacht. He was then eighty five years old.

Introductory quotations
Jean Piaget
Dr. William Sheldon on personality and temperament
Carl Gustav Jung
B.F. Skinner
Spirituality & the wider world


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Carl Gustav Jung and
the collective unconcious