Whig interpretation of history
The term Whig is actually a pejorative name user to refer to the British Whigs, who supported the power
of Parliament by their Tory opponents who were usual supporters of the King and the Aristocracy in a long drawn
out ideological contest principally played out in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. It was a contest
in which the Whig interest felt it had prevailed, and which had resulted in the establishment of a constitutional monarchy in Britain.
The Whigs felt that this form constitutional monarchy was allied to political liberty allowing the constitutional
subjects of the Monarch, who were also subject to Parliamentary laws, many opportunities for a progressive life.
One of the principal proponents of Whiggish history was Thomas Macaulay author of a celebrated,
multivolume, History of England from the Accession of James II, the first two volumes of which were issued
in 1848. The very first paragraph of the first chapter of the first book sets out something of Macaulay's
congratulatory approach to British history as
guided by Whig principles:-
I purpose to write the history of England from the accession of King James the Second down to a time
which is within the memory of men still living. I shall recount the errors which, in a few months,
alienated a loyal gentry and priesthood from the House of Stuart. I shall trace the course of that
revolution which terminated the long struggle between our sovereigns and their parliaments, and bound
up together the rights of the people and the title of the reigning dynasty.
I shall relate how the new settlement was, during many troubled years, successfully defended against foreign and
domestic enemies; how, under that settlement, the authority of law and the security of property were found to
be compatible with a liberty of discussion and of individual action never before known; how, from the
auspicious union of order and freedom, sprang a prosperity of which the annals of human affairs had furnished
no example; how our country, from a state of ignominious vassalage, rapidly rose to the place of umpire among
European powers; how her opulence and her martial glory grew together; how, by wise and resolute good faith,
was gradually established a public credit fruitful of marvels which to the statesmen of any former age would
have seemed incredible; how a gigantic commerce gave birth to a maritime power, compared with which every
other maritime power, ancient or modern, sinks into insignificance; how Scotland, after ages of enmity, was
at length united to England, not merely by legal bonds, but by indissoluble ties of interest and affection;
how, in America, the British colonies rapidly became far mightier and wealthier than the realms which Cortes
and Pizarro had added to the dominions of Charles the Fifth; how in Asia, British adventurers founded
an empire not less splendid and more durable than that of Alexander.
In this work Macaulay identified, to his own satisfaction, a thread of
what he regarded as progressive change.
There was then an interpretation of history then that looked
at much of history, through British Whig eyes, as having been a course of progress away from savagery and
ignorance towards peace, prosperity, and science.
He traced the origins of English nationhood and political representation back to the time of the signing of Magna
Carta (1215), which he presented as an attempt to limit the powers of the Norman (i.e. French and foreign) kings.
He interpreted the Protestant Reformation of the sixteenth century as a great blow for individual liberty against
the monkish despotism of the Catholic Church. The English Civil War was the result of an attempt by Charles I to
turn back the clock of progress by sabotaging the increasing authority of Parliament. Charles’s son, James II,
was spurred by his reactionary Catholic beliefs to make similar attempts, but was happily defeated in the
Glorious Revolution of 1688, when political opponents (significantly nicknamed Whigs) called upon William
of Orange to rescue English liberties and rule as William III.
In all of this Macaulay’s heroes were those who stood on the side of the developing powers of Parliament in the
struggle to overcome the "autocratic power" of kingship and churchmen. Freed from the constraints of absolutism Englishmen
were able to enjoy liberties under law where they could gain wealth through trade and provide a good education
for their children so that they, in turn, could enjoy and defend the fruits of hard-won liberties.
The appalling realities of suffering experienced during the First World War, (and possibly also
Britains slow relapse from being a major power), contributed to a less optimistic assessment being made
of the course of history as being one of sustained progress.
The British historian Herbert Butterfield, in his small but influential book
The Whig Interpretation of History (1931) (whose title actually coined the phrase!) criticised many
traditional assumptions of the Whig history that had seemed to see liberal parliamentary democracy as the
best form of government which all peoples should hope to adopt and seek to perfect.
Whig History for Butterfield, was a flawed history of progressive "liberal and democratic" heroes
who had won concessions in the teeth of opposition from a variety of conservative and absolutist forces
Whilst many people interested in non-academic history often enjoyed a good, sweeping narrative
and appreciated the way in which Whig-style history gave them straightforward explanations of events
and - crucially - a progressive sense of their own place in time issues raised by Butterfield's disparagement
of Whig history remain central to debates about the nature and purpose
Butterfield was probably right to point out the dangers of glorifying and distorting the past to uphold
a particular view of the present, and many would agree that the objectivity he demanded is central to all
‘good history’. Others might question how far objectivity is, in practice, attainable, and point to the way in which
Butterfield’s own prejudices shaped his criticisms. Butterfield seems to have been particularly appalled, as a committed Christian,
because felt that such
optimism made sinful human beings, and not God, the shapers of their own destinies.
Popular European History pages
The preparation of these pages was influenced to some degree by a particular "Philosophy
of History" as suggested by this quote from the famous Essay "History" by Ralph Waldo Emerson:-
There is one mind common to all individual men...
Of the works of this mind history is the record. Its genius is
illustrated by the entire series of days. Man is explicable by
nothing less than all his history. Without hurry, without rest,
the human spirit goes forth from the beginning to embody every
faculty, every thought, every emotion, which belongs to it in
appropriate events. But the thought is always prior to the fact;
all the facts of history preexist in the mind as laws. Each law
in turn is made by circumstances predominant, and the limits of
nature give power to but one at a time. A man is the whole
encyclopaedia of facts. The creation of a thousand forests is in
one acorn, and Egypt, Greece, Rome, Gaul, Britain, America, lie
folded already in the first man. Epoch after epoch, camp,
kingdom, empire, republic, democracy, are merely the application
of his manifold spirit to the manifold world.
- 1 The European Revolution of 1848 begins
- A broad outline of the background to the onset of the turmoils and a consideration of some of the early events.
- 2 The French Revolution of 1848
- A particular focus on France - as the influential Austrian minister Prince Metternich, who sought to encourage the re-establishment of "Order" in the wake of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic turmoils of 1789-1815, said:-"When France sneezes Europe catches a cold".
- 3 The Revolution of 1848 in the German Lands and central Europe
- "Germany" had a movement for a single parliament in 1848 and many central European would-be "nations" attempted
to assert a distinct existence separate from the dynastic sovereignties they had been living under.
- 4 The "Italian" Revolution of 1848
- A "liberal" Papacy after 1846 helps allow the embers of an "Italian" national aspiration to rekindle across the Italian Peninsula.
- 5 The Monarchs recover power 1848-1849
- Some instances of social and political extremism allow previously pro-reform conservative elements to support
the return of traditional authority. Louis Napoleon, (who later became the Emperor Napoleon III), attains to power
in France offering social stability at home but ultimately follows policies productive of dramatic change in the wider European
structure of states and their sovereignty.